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# 4.4 Expressions

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An expression is a formula that defines the computation or retrieval of a value. In this International Standard, the term “expression” refers to a construct of the syntactic category expression or of any of the following categories: choice_expression, choice_relation, relation, simple_expression, term, factor, primary, conditional_expression, quantified_expression.

#### Syntax

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expression ::=
relation {and relation}  | relation {and then relation}
| relation {or relation}  | relation {or else relation}
| relation {xor relation}
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choice_expression ::=
choice_relation {and choice_relation}
| choice_relation {or choice_relation}
| choice_relation {xor choice_relation}
| choice_relation {and then choice_relation}
| choice_relation {or else choice_relation}
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choice_relation ::=
simple_expression [relational_operator simple_expression]
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relation ::=
simple_expression [relational_operator simple_expression]
| tested_simple_expression [notin membership_choice_list
| raise_expression
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membership_choice_list ::= membership_choice {| membership_choice}
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membership_choice ::= choice_simple_expression | range | subtype_mark
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term ::= factor {multiplying_operator factor}
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factor ::= primary [** primary] | abs primary | not primary
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primary ::=
numeric_literal | null | string_literal | aggregate
| name | allocator | (expression)
| (conditional_expression) | (quantified_expression)

#### Name Resolution Rules

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A name used as a primary shall resolve to denote an object or a value.

#### Static Semantics

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Each expression has a type; it specifies the computation or retrieval of a value of that type.

#### Dynamic Semantics

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The value of a primary that is a name denoting an object is the value of the object.

#### Implementation Permissions

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For the evaluation of a primary that is a name denoting an object of an unconstrained numeric subtype, if the value of the object is outside the base range of its type, the implementation may either raise Constraint_Error or return the value of the object.

#### Examples

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Examples of primaries:
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4.0                --  real literal
Pi                 --  named number
(1 .. 10 => 0)     --  array aggregate
Sum                --  variable
Integer'Last       --  attribute
Sine(X)            --  function call
Color'(Blue)       --  qualified expression
Real(M*N)          --  conversion
(Line_Count + 10)  --  parenthesized expression
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Examples of expressions:
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Volume                      -- primary
not Destroyed               -- factor
2*Line_Count                -- term
-4.0                        -- simple expression
-4.0 + A                    -- simple expression
B**2 - 4.0*A*C              -- simple expression
R*Sin(θ)*Cos(φ)             -- simple expression
Password(1 .. 3) = "Bwv"    -- relation
Count in Small_Int          -- relation
Count not in Small_Int      -- relation
Index = 0 or Item_Hit       -- expression
(Cold and Sunny) or Warm    -- expression (parentheses are required)
A**(B**C)                   -- expression (parentheses are required)

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